text-only page produced automatically by Lift Text Transcoder
GO TO CCNY’S NEW SITE »
ltrcmain
 

New York State Teacher Certification Examinations

Test Objectives for the Liberal Arts & Science Test (L.A.S.T.)

The following test objectives are listed in the New York State Registration Bulletin. Below each Test Objective is a list of resource material for reviewing the specific objective. The media resources listed under Review Resources are located in the Learning and Technology Resource Center (LTRC), in NAC Room 3/226.

Purpose: The New York State educator has the knowledge and skills necessary to teach effectively in New York State public schools. The teacher has a broad understanding of the fundamental concepts of mathematics and science and is familiar with the basic principles and procedures associated with scientific inquiry. The teacher recognizes the interrelatedness of geography and culture and can analyze varied interpretations of human history and society. The teacher has an understanding of the major traditions of art, literature, religion, and philosophy and how cultural contexts inform artistic and literary expression. The teacher can communicate effectively, reason clearly, and evaluate competing ideas and arguments. Most importantly, the teacher recognizes the fundamental connections among all realms of human thought and endeavor and the diverse perspectives that shape human societies.
SUBAREA I—SCIENTIFIC AND MATHEMATICAL, AND TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES
Test Objective 0001

Use mathematical reasoning in problem-solving situations to arrive at logical conclusions and to analyze the problem-solving process.

For example:

  • analyzing problem solutions for logical flaw
  • examing problems to determine missiing information needed to solve them
  • analyzing a partial solution to a problem to determine an appropriate next step.
  • Evaluating the validity or logic of an aregument or advertising claim that is based on statistics or probability
Review Resources

Web Sites:

 

http://www.standards
.nctm.org/
documents/examples
/index.htm

http://www.hawaii.edu/
suremath/
students.html

CD-ROM: CCNY L.A.S.T. Electronic Test Preparation Guide
Books: 1. Barron's: How to Prepare for NYSTCE - L.A.S.T/A.T.S-W,
2000.
Billstein, Rick, Libeskind, Shlomo, and Lott, Johnny W. (1997). A Problem
Solving Approach to: Mathematics for Elementary School Teachers,6th ed.,
New York: Addison-Wesley.
Posamentier, Alfred S. and Stepelman, Jay (1999). Teaching Secondary
Mathematics: Techniques and Enrichment Units. New Jersey: Merrill,
Prentice Hall, pp. 98-126.
Test Objective 0002

Understand connections between mathematical representations and ideas; and use mathematical terms and representations to organize, interpret, and communicate information.

For example:

  • analyzing data and making inferences from two or more graphic sources.(e.g., diagrams, graphs, equations)
  • restating a problem related to a concrete situation in mathematical terms
  • using mathematical modeling/multiple representations to present, interpret, communicate, and connect mathermatical information and relationships
  • Selecting and appropriate graph or table summarizing information presetned in another form (e.g., a newspapaer excerpt)
Review Resources

Web Sites:

http://forum.swarthmore.edu/

http://www.sandbox.net/
finalbell/pub-doc/home.html

CD-ROM: CCNY L.A.S.T. Electronic Test Preparation Guide
Books: 1. Barron's: How to Prepare for NYSTCE - L.A.S.T/A.T.S-W, 2000.
Test Objective 0003

Apply knowledge of numerical, geometric, and algebraic relationships in real-world and mathematical contexts.

For example:

  • Representing and using numbers in a variety of equivalent forms (e.g.,integer, fraction, decimal, percent)
  • applying operational algorithms to add, substract,multiply and divide fractions decimals, and integers
  • using scales and ratios to interpret maps and models
  • using geometric concepts and formulas to solve problems (e.g., estimating the surface area of a floor to determine the approximate cost of floor covering)
  • solving problems using algebraic concepts and formulas (e.g., calculating wages based on sales commission)
  • applying appropriate algebraic equations to the solution of problems (e.g.. determining the original price of a sale item given the rate of discount)
Review Resources

Web Sites:

http://library.thinkquest.org/
16284/geometry.htm

http://tqd.advanced.org/3288/
fractals.html

CD-ROM: CCNY L.A.S.T. Electronic Test Preparation Guide
Videos: Consumer Math
Books: 1. Barron's: How to Prepare for NYSTCE - L.A.S.T/A.T.S-W, 2000.
Test Objective 0004

Understand major concepts, principles, and theories in sciences and technology; and use that understanding to analyze phenomena in the natural world and to interpret information presented in illustrated or written form.

For example:

  • using an appropriate illustration, graphic, or physical model to represent a scientific theory, concept, or relationship presented in an excerpt
  • relating a major scientific principle, concept, or theory to an everyday
    phenomenon
  • using design processes and procedures to pose questions and select solutions to problems and situations
  • applying technological knowledge and skills to evaluate the degree to which products and systems meet human and environmental needs
  • analyzing excerpts describing recent scientific discoveries or technological advances in relation to underlying scientific principles, concepts, or themes
Review Resources

Web Sites:

http://www.nsta.org

http://www.newscie
ntist.com/
lastword

http://www.globe.gov

CD-ROM: CCNY L.A.S.T. Electronic Test Preparation Guide
Books:
  • Hazen, Robert M. & Trefil, James (1991). Scientific Matters: Achieving
    Scientific Literacy.
  • Barron's: How to Prepare for NYSTCE - L.A.S.T/A.T.S-W, 2000.
Test Objective 0005

Understand the historical development and cultural contexts of mathematics, science, and technology; the relationships and common themes that connect mathematics, science, and technology; and the impact of mathematics, science, and technology on human societies.

For example:

  • analyzing the historical, societal, or environmental effects of given developments in science and technology (e.g., computerization).
  • recognizing how mathematical models can be used to understand scientific social, or enviromental phenomena
  • evaluating how historical and societal factors have promoted or hindered developments in science and technology.
  • analyzing how developments in scientific knowledge may affect other areas of life (e.g., recognizing types of scientific data likely to affect government policymaking regarding pollution control).
Review Resources

Web Sites:

 

 

http://www.december.com/
cmc/mag/1996/aug/kling.html

http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/
stories/s541.htm

http://www.enc.org

CD-ROM: CCNY L.A.S.T. Electronic Test Preparation Guide
Books:
  • Poole, Bernard J. (1997). Education for an Information Age: Teaching in the Computerized Classroom, pp. 10-31.
  • Barron's: How to Prepare for NYSTCE - L.A.S.T/A.T.S-W, 2000.
Test Objective 0006 Understand and apply skills, principles, and procedures associated with inquiry and problem solving in the sciences.

For example:

  • applying scientific methods and principles (including nonquantitative methods, such as case studies) to investigate a question or problem
  • formulating questions to guide research and experimentation toward explanations for phenomena and observations
  • inferring the scientific principles (e.g., reliance on experimental data, replication of results) or skills (e.g., observation,inductive reasoning, familiarity with statistics and probability) that contributed to a scientific development as described in an excerpt
  • demonstrating familiarity with electronic means for collecting, organizing, and analyzing information (e.g., databases, spreadsheets)
  • analyzing the components of a given experimental design (e.g., dependent and independent variables, experimental groups, control groups)
  • demonstrating an understanding of the nature of scientific inquiry (including ethical dimensions) and the role of observation and experimentation in science
Review Resources

Web Sites: 

 

http://ublib.buffalo.edu/libraries/
projects/cases/case.html

http://www.nsta.org

http://statistics.com

CD-ROM: CCNY L.A.S.T. Electronic Test Preparation Guide
Videos: Statisics Vol. 1
Books: 1. Barron's: How to Prepare for NYSTCE - L.A.S.T/A.T.S-W, 2000.
SUBAREA II—HISTORICAL AND SOCIAL SCIENTIFIC AWARENESS
Test Objective 0007

Understand the interrelatedness of historical, geographic, cultural, economic, political, and social issues and factors.

For example:

  • assessing the likely effects of human activities or trends (described in written or graphic form) on the local, regional, or global environment
  • assessing ways in which major transformations related to human work, thought, and belief (e.g., industrialization, the scientific revolution, the development of various religions and belief traditions) have affected human society
  • inferring aspects of a society’s social structure or group interactions based on information presented in an excerpt
  • analyzing ways in which social, cultural, geographical, and economic factors influence intergroup relations and the formation of values, beliefs, and attitudes
  • assessing the social or economic implications of political views presented in an excerpt
Review Resources

Web Sites:

 

 

http://www.socialstudies
.org/links/

http://www.blackhistory.
eb.com/
micro/129/80.html

http://www.nde.state.ne.us/
SSss.html

CD-ROM: CCNY L.A.S.T. Electronic Test Preparation Guide
Videos: U.S. Government, Vol. 1 & 2
Books: Schools for the 21st Century
Test Objective 0008

Understand principles and assumptions underlying historical or contemporary arguments, interpretations, explanations, or developments.

For example:

  • inferring the political principles (e.g., popular sovereignty, separation of powers, due process of the law) illustrated in given situations or arguments
  • recognizing assumptions (e.g., regarding the nature of power relationships) that inform the positions taken by polotical parties
  • analyzing assumptions on which given U.S. economic policies (e.g., national health insurance, foreign relations) are based
  • recognizing concepts and ideas underlying alternative interpretations of past events
  • inferring the economic principle (e.g., supply and demand, redistribution of wealth) upon which a given explanation is based
Review Resources

Web Sites:

 

http://nationalissues.com

http://www.ncss.org

CD-ROM: CCNY L.A.S.T. Electronic Test Preparation Guide
Videos: U.S. Government Vol. 2
Books: World History: The Easy Way
Test Objective 0009 Understand different perspectives and priorities underlying historical or contemporary arguments, interpretations, explanations, or developments.

For example:

  • inferring the values implicit (e.g., a commitment to democratic institutions) implicit in given political, economic, social, or religious points of view
  • recognizing the motives, beliefs, and interests that inform differing political, economic, social, or religious points of view (e.g., arguments related to equity, equality, and comparisons between groups or nations)
  • analyzing multiple perspectives within U S society regarding major historical and contemporary issues.
  • recognizing the values or priorities implicit in given public policy positions
  • analyzing the perceptions or opinions of observers or participants from different cultures regarding a given world event or development
Review Resources

Web Sites:

 

http://www.omsakthi.org/
religions.html

http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/
H/1994/
chap1.htm

http://www.siggraph.org/
pub~policy/
whitepaperGII.html

CD-ROM: CCNY L.A.S.T. Electronic Test Preparation Guide
Videos: U.S. Government, Vol. 2
Books: Wilson, James Q. (2000) American Government
U.S. History Builder
Test Objective 0010

Understand and apply skills, principles, and procedures associated with inquiry, problem solving, and decision making in history and the social sciences.

For example:

  • analyzing a description of research results to identify additional unanswered questions or to determine potential problems in research methodology.
  • determining the relevance or sufficiency of given information for supporting or refuting a point of view.
  • assessing the reliability of sources of information cited in historical or contemporary accounts or arguments and determining whether specific conclusions or generalizations are supported by verifiable evidence
  • evaluating the appropriateness of specific sources (e.g., atlas, periodical guide, economic database) to meet given information needs (e.g., the distribution of natural resources in a given region, the political philosophy of a presidential candidate)
  • distinguishing between unsupported and informed expressions of opinion
Review Resources

Web Sites:

http://www.vuw.ac.nz/~
agsmith
/evaln/
evaln.htm

http://www.nde.state.ne.us/SS
/ss.html

CD-ROM: CCNY L.A.S.T. Electronic Test Preparation Guide
Books: Social Studies Content - Elementary School Teacher
Test Objective 0011 Understand and interpret visual representations of historical and social scientific information.

For example:

  • translating written or graphic information from one form to the other (e.g., selecting an appropriate graphic representation of information from an article on historical changes in global population)
  • relating information provided in graphic representations (e.g., regarding population or economic trends) to public policy decisions
  • interpreting historical or social scientific information provided in one or more graphs, charts, tables, diagrams, or maps
  • inferring significant information (e g , geographic. economic, sociological) about a historical or contemporary society based on examination of a photograph, painting, drawing, cartoon, or other visual representation
Review Resources

Web Sites:

http://www.spc.noaa.gov/
archive/
tornadoes/index.html

http://www.library.csi.cuny.edu/
westweb

http://www.nationalgeographic
.com

CD-ROM: CCNY L.A.S.T. Electronic Test Preparation Guide
Books: Barron's: How to Prepare for NYSTCE - L.A.S.T/A.T.S-W, 2000.
SUBAREA III—ARTISTIC EXPRESSION AND THE HUMANITIES
Test Objective 0012 Understand elements of form and content in representations of works from the visual and performing arts from different periods and cultures.

For example:

  • recognizing important elements in a given work of the visual or performing arts (e.g., focal point, symmetry, repetition of shapes, perspective, motif, rhyth)
  • determining how a sense of unity or balance is achieved in a given work from the visual or performing arts
  • characterizing the theme, mood, or tone of a given work from the visual or performing arts
  • determining how specific elements in a given work of the visual or performing arts (e.g., color, composition, scale, instrumentation, set design, choreography) affect audience perceptions of the content of the work
Review Resources Web Sites: http://www.artlex.com/
CD-ROM: CCNY L.A.S.T. Electronic Test Preparation Guide
Books: Barron's: How to Prepare for NYSTCE - L.A.S.T/A.T.S-W, 2000.
Test Objective 0013 Analyze, interpret, and compare representations of works from the visual and performing arts from different periods and cultures and understand the relationship of works of art to their social and historical contexts.

For example:

  • identifying similarities and differences in forms and styles of art from different movements or periods of time
  • comparing and contrasting two or more works from the visual or performing arts in terms of mood, theme, or technique
  • demonstrating an understanding of art as a form of communication (e.g., conveying political or moral concepts, serving as a means of individual expression)
  • analyzing ways in which the content of a given work from the visual or
    performing arts reflects a specific cultural or historical context
Review Resources

Web Sites:

http://www.documentary
films.net
/jazz
CD-ROM: CCNY L.A.S.T. Electronic Test Preparation Guide
Books: Cornett, Claudia E. (1999). The Arts as Meaning Makers.
Test Objective 0014 Respond to forms and themes used in examples of literature from different periods and cultures.

For example:

  • identifying characteristic features of various genres of fiction and nonfiction (e.g., novels, plays, essays, autobiographies)
  • distinguishing the dominant theme in a literary passage
  • recognizing common literary elements and techniques (e.g., imagery, metaphor, symbolism, allegory, foreshadowing, irony) and using those elements to interpret a literary passage
  • determining the meaning of figurative language used in a literary passage
Review Resources

Web Sites:

http://tomsdomain.com/
aesop/
aesopmain.htm

http://www.cwrl.utexas.edu/

CD-ROM: CCNY L.A.S.T. Electronic Test Preparation Guide
Books: Barron's: How to Prepare for NYSTCE - L.A.S.T/A.T.S-W, 2000.
Test Objective 0015 Analyze, interpret, and compare examples of literature from different periods and cultures and understand the relationship of works of literature to their social and historical contexts.

For example:

  • analyzing how the parts of a literary passage contribute to the whole
  • comparing and contrasting the tone or mood of two or more literary passages
  • analyzing aspects of cultural or historical context implied in a literary passage
  • distinguishing characteristic features of different literary genres, periods, and traditions reflected in one or more literary passages
  • making inferences about character, setting, author’s point of view. etc . based on the content of a literary passage
  • recognizing how a text conveys multiple levels of meaning
Review Resources

Web Sites:

http://www.poets.org/poets/
poets.cfm?
prmID=84
CD-ROM: CCNY L.A.S.T. Electronic Test Preparation Guide
Books: Hirsch, Edward (1999). How to Read a Poem.
Test Objective 0016 Analyze, interpret, and compare examples of religious or philosophical ideas from various cultures and understand their significance in shaping societies and cultures.

For example:

  • distinguishing the religious and philosophical traditions associated with given cultures and world regions
  • recognizing assumptions and beliefs underlying ideas presented in religious or philosophical writing
  • analyzing societal implications of philosophical or religious ideas
  • comparing and contrasting key concepts presented in two excerpts reflecting different philosophical or religious traditions
Review Resources

Web Sites:

http://www.mkgandhi.org
/articles/
index.htm

http://www.sc.edu/fitzgerald
/index.html

CD-ROM: CCNY L.A.S.T. Electronic Test Preparation Guide
Books: Barron's: How to Prepare for NYSTCE - L.A.S.T/A.T.S-W, 2000.
SUBAREA IV—COMMUNICATION SKILLS
Test Objective 0017 Derive information from written materials from a variety of sources (e.g., magazine article, essay).

For example:

  • identifying the stated or implied idea of a paragraph or passage
  • selecting an accurate summary or outline of a passage
  • organizing information presented on a Web site or other electronic means of communication
  • comprehending stated or implied relationships in an excerpt (e g.. cause and effect, sequence of events)
  • recognizing information that supports, illustrates, or elaborates the main idea of a passage
Review Resources

Web Sites:

http://www.ncte.org

http://www.nap.edu/
readingroom/
books/nses/html

CD-ROM: CCNY L.A.S.T. Electronic Test Preparation Guide
Books: 1. Sources - Notable Selections in Education
2. Barron's: How to Prepare for NYSTCE - L.A.S.T/A.T.S-W, 2000.
Test Objective 0018 Interpret and analyze written materials from a variety of sources.

For example:

  • recognizing a writer's purpose for writing (e.g., to persuade, to describe)
  • drawing conclusions or making generalizations based on information presented in an excerpt
  • interpreting figurative language in an excerpt
  • comparing and contrasting views or arguments presented in two or more excerpts
Review Resources

Web Sites:

http://www.ncteamerican
collection.org/
student_
featuredwork.htm

Media Resources - Located in the Learning & Technology Resource Center

CD-ROM: CCNY L.A.S.T. Electronic Test Preparation Guide

Books: Barron's: How to Prepare for NYSTCE - L.A.S.T/A.T.S-W, 2000.

Test Objective 0019 Use critical reasoning skills to assess an author’s treatment of content in written materials from a variety of sources.

For example:

  • analyzing the logical structure of an argument in an excerpt and identifying possible instances of faulty reasoning
  • distinguishing between fact and opinion in written material
  • determining the relevance of specific facts, examples, or data to a writer's argument
  • interpreting the content, word choice, and phrasing of a passage to determine a writer's opinions, point of view, or position on an issue
  • evaluating the credibility, objectivity, or bias of an author's argument or sources
Review Resources

Web Sites:

http://www.britannica.com
CD-ROM: CCNY L.A.S.T. Electronic Test Preparation Guide
Books: Barron's: How to Prepare for NYSTCE - L.A.S.T/A.T.S-W, 2000.
Test Objective 0020 Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of expression in a written paragraph or passage according to the conventions of Edited American English.

For example:

  • revising text to correct problems relating to grammar (e.g., syntax, pronounantecedent agreement)
  • revising text to correct problems relating to sentence construction (e.g., those involving parallel structure, misplaced modifiers, run-on sentences)
  • revising text to improve unity and coherence (e.g., eliminating unnecessary sentences or paragraphs, adding a topic sentence or introductory paragraph, clarifying transitions between and relationships among ideas presented
  • analyzing problems related to the organization of an ideas, grouping of related ideas, development of main points)
Review Resources

Websites:

http://www.bartleby.com/141/

http://vweb1.hiway.co.uk/ei/
intro.html

CD-ROM: CCNY L.A.S.T. Electronic Test Preparation Guide
Books: Barron's: How to Prepare for NYSTCE - L.A.S.T/A.T.S-W, 2000.
SUBAREA V—WRITTEN ANALYSIS AND EXPRESSION
Test Objective 0021 Prepare an organized, developed composition in Edited American English in response to instructions regarding content, purpose, and audience.

For example:

  • demonstrating familiarity with basic reference tools (e.g., encyclopedias, almanacs, bibliographies, databases, atlases, periodical guides)
  • recognizing the difference between primary and secondary sources
  • formulating research questions and hypotheses
  • applying procedures for retrieving information from traditional and technological sources (e.g., newspapers, CD-ROMs, the Internet)
  • interpreting data presented in visual, graphic, tabular, and quantitative forms (e.g., recognizing level of statistical significance)
  • organizing information into logical and coherent outlines
  • evaluating the reliability of different sources of information
Review Resources

Websites:

http://www.mwsu.edu/
htmldocs/
departments/english/
convent.html

http://www.mantex.co.uk/
reviews/
fowler.htm

CD-ROM: CCNY L.A.S.T. Electronic Test Preparation Guide
Books: Barron's: How to Prepare for NYSTCE - L.A.S.T/A.T.S-W, 2000.
Sample Directions for the Written Assignment - from the NY State Teacher Certification Test Registration Bulletin.
This section of the test consists of a written assignment. You are asked to prepare a written response of about 300—600 words on the assigned topic. You should use your time to plan, write, review, and edit what you have written for the assignment.

Read the assignment carefully before you begin to write. Think about how you will organize what you plan to write. You may use any blank space provided on the following pages to make notes, write an outline, or otherwise prepare your response. However, your score will be based solely on the response you write in the space provided on pages 3, 4, 5, and 6 in the answer document.

Your response to the written assignment will be evaluated based on your demonstrated ability to:

  • comprehend and focus on a unified, controlling topic;
  • select and use a strategy of expression that is appropriate for the intended audience and purpose;
  • present a reasoned, organized argument or exposition;
  • use support an evidence to develop and bolster your ideas and account for the views of others;

and express yourself clearly and without distractions caused by inattention to sentence and paragraph structure, choice and use of words, and mechanics (i.e., spelling, punctuation, and capitalization).

Your response will be evaluated based on your demonstrated ability to express and support opinions, not on the nature or content of the opinions expressed. The final version of your response should conform to the conventions of Edited American English. This should be your original work, written in your own words, and not copied or paraphrased from some other work.

Be sure to write about the assigned topic and use multiple paragraphs. Please write legibly. You may not use any reference materials during the test. Remember to review what you have written and make any changes you think will improve your written response.

Sample Written Assignment

Should law enforcement officials in a criminal investigation be allowed to compel reporters to reveal the names of their confidential sources? The arguments below present opposing views on this question.

In favor of compelling reporters to reveal confidential sources.

The ability to compel reporters to reveal confidential sources in criminal cases would benefit law enforcement officials, defendants, and reporters alike. For example, police officers and district attorneys deserve the cooperation of all citizens in the fight against crime. Moreover, people charged with a crime or official misconduct deserve the opportunity to confront their accusers and examine the evidence presented. Too often reporters rely on so-called “confidential” sources when by digging a little deeper they could find the information themselves. It would be a sad mistake to handcuff the criminal justice system just so reporters have an easier time getting a story.

Opposed to compelling reporters to reveal confidential sources.

Relying on confidential sources is one of the most powerful tools journalists have to investigate wrongdoing and official misconduct. For example, many public officials—and ordinary citizens—will talk to a reporter only if they are assured of anonymity. Some fear they may lose a promotion or their jobs; others are concerned for their own safety or that of their families. If reporters cannot be trusted to keep their sources confidential, people will be reluctant to step forward to tell the truth about criminal activity or official corruption. In the long run, such a policy would only jeopardize the ability of news organizations to obtain information vital to the public.

Should law enforcement officials in a criminal investigation be allowed to compel reporters to reveal the names of their confidential sources? In an essay written for a general audience of educated adults:

evaluate the opposing arguments related to this question;

state your position on whether or not reporters should be compelled to reveal the names of their confidential sources to law enforcement officials; and defend your position with logical arguments and appropriate examples and evaluations.

 
divider-soe

Learning and Technology Resource Center


Leonard Lewis, Director

North Academic Center
Room 3/226

160 Convent Avenue
New York, NY 10031

P | (212) 650-7801
F | (212) 650-5803
E | llewis@ccny.cuny.edu
The City College of New York

160 Convent Avenue
New York, NY 10031
(212) 650 7000

Find us on:
© Copyright, The City College of The City University of New York. All rights reserved.
Website Powered by: CommonSpot