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New York State Teacher Certification Examinations

TEST OBJECTIVES - Assessment of Teaching Skills - Written (A.T.S. - W)

The following test objectives are listed in the New York State Registration Bulletin (2001-2002).

Below each Test Objective is a list of resource material for reviewing the specific objective. The videos and books are reference materials to be used in the Media facility of the Learning & Technology Resource Center, NAC 3/226.

Purpose

The purpose of the elementary and secondary versions of the A.T.S-W is to assess the pedagogical knowledge of candidates seeking teaching certification. The A.T.S-Written will assess knowledge and skills in the following areas:

  • knowledge of the learner.
  • instructional planning and assessment.
  • instructional delivery.
  • the professional environment.

The test objectives listed below are eligible to be assessed by the Elementary or Secondary ATS—W. Each test objective is followed by focus statements that provide examples of the range, type, and level of content that may appear on the test.

SUBAREA I—KNOWLEDGE OF THE LEARNER
Test Objective 01

Understand human developmental processes and variations, and use this understanding to foster student learning.

For example:

  • recognizing developmental progressions and ways in which a student’s development in any domain (i.e., cognitive, affective, psychomotor) may affect performance in other domains.
  • analyzing how developmental variation among learners affects instructional decision-making in given situations.
  • applying knowledge of developmental characteristics of learners to evaluate alternative instructional goals.
  • selecting appropriate instructional strategies for fostering growth in given learners.
Review Resources

Websites:

http://www.valdosta.oeachnet.edu/
~whuitt/ps702/cogsys/piagtuse.html

http://www.uic.edu/~Inucci/MoralEd/

Videos: Human Development, The First 2 1/2 Years, Emotional/Social Development
Human Development, The First 2 1/2 Years, Language Development
Books:
  • Ormrod, Jeanne E. (2000).Educational Psychology:Developing Learners, 3rd Ed. pp. 24-117.
  • Moore, Shirley G. (1999). The Young Child: Reviews of Research, Vol. 3.
  • Barron's: How to Prepare for the NYSTCE - L.A.S.T/A.T.S-W, 2000
Test Objective 02 Understand how factors in the home, the school, and the community may affect learners; and use this knowledge to create a classroom environment within which all students can grow and learn.

For example:

  • recognizing the significance of changing family patterns and the home environment (e.g., nature of the expectations of parents, guardians, or caregivers; degree of their involvement in a child’s education) for student learning.
  • analyzing how school-wide structures (e.g., tracking) and classroom factors (e.g., homogeneous versus heterogeneous grouping, student-teacher interactions) may affect students’ self-concepts and learning.
  • analyzing ways in which peer interactions may promote or hinder a student’s success in school and determining effective strategies for dealing with peer-related issues in given classroom situations.
  • analyzing how community characteristics (e.g., socioeconomic profile, presence of a substance abuse or gang problem, availability of community centers) may affect learners.
Review Resources

Websites:

http://www.edweek.org/context/
topics/parent.htm

http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/
issues/educatrs/leadrshp/le/
400.htm

Books:
  • Ormrod, Jeanne E. (2000). Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, 3rd Ed. pp. 119-165
  • McClay, Jodi L. (1999). Learning Centers. TCM.
  • Barron's: How to Prepare for the NYSTCE - L.A.S.T/A.T.S-W, 2000
Test Objective 03 Understand diverse student populations, and use knowledge of diversity within the school and the community to address the needs of all learners and to foster among students a sense of community and an appreciation of and respect for all individuals and groups.

For example:

  • recognizing appropriate strategies for teachers to use to enhance their own understanding of students’ backgrounds and needs (e.g., learning about students’ family situations, cultural backgrounds) and to promote a sense of community among diverse groups in the classroom.
  • applying strategies for working effectively with students from all cultures, students from various socioeconomic circumstances, students of both genders, students from homes where English is not the primary language, and students whose home situations involve a variety of family arrangements and lifestyles.
  • applying strategies for fostering students’ understanding and appreciation of diversity and for using diversity that exists within the classroom and the community to enhance all students’ learning.
  • analyzing how classroom environments that respect diversity foster positive student experiences.
Review Resources

Websites:

http://www.edc.org/FSC/NCIP/
Books:
  • Ormrod, Jeanne E. (2000). Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, 3rd Ed. pp. 119-165.
  • Jasmine, Julia (1999). Addressing Diversity in the Classroom. TCM.
  • Grenot-Scheyer, Marquita (1999). The Inclusive Classroom. TCM.
  • Barron's: How to Prepare for the NYSTCE - L.A.S.T/A.T.S-W, 2000
Test Objective 04 Understand the characteristics and needs of students with disabilities, developmental delays, and exceptional abilities; and use this knowledge to adapt and implement strategies and environments that foster the development and learning of all students.

For example:

  • demonstrating awareness of types of disabilities, developmental delays, and exceptionalities and of the implications for learning associated with these differences.
  • understanding criteria and procedures for evaluating, selecting, creating, and modifying mate­rials and equipment, including assistive technology, to address individual special needs.
  • understanding the responsibilities and requirements associated with the development of individualized education plans (IEPs) and individualized family service plans (IFSPs), and demon­strating the ability to integrate goals from IEPs and IFSPs into instructional activities and daily routines.
  • applying strategies to ensure that children with special needs and exceptionalities are an integral part of the class and participate to the greatest extent possible in all classroom activities.
Review Resources

Websites:

 

 

 

http://www.hood.edu/seri/
serihome.htm

http://www.cec.sped.org/

http://www.cal.org/crede/

http://wrice.org/

Books:
  • Ormrod, Jeanne E. (2000). Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, 3rd Ed. pp. 166-217
  • Karisson, Mary R. (1999). Motivating At-Risk Students. TCM.
  • Barron's: How to Prepare for the NYSTCE - L.A.S.T/A.T.S-W, 2000
Test Objective 05 Understand learning processes and apply strategies that foster student learning and promote students’ active engagement in learning.

For example:

  • analyzing processes by which students construct meaning and applying strategies for facilitating learning in instructional situations (e.g., by building connections between new information and prior knowledge, by relating learning to world issues and community concerns, by making learning purposeful).
  • recognizing how various teacher roles (e.g., direct instructor, facilitator) and student roles (e.g., self-directed learner, group participant, passive observer) may affect learning processes and outcomes.
  • analyzing factors (e.g., learning styles) that affect students’ learning and adapting instructional practices to promote learning in given situations.
  • recognizing effective strategies for promoting independent thinking and learning (e.g., by helping students develop critical-thinking, decision-making, and problem-solving skills; by enabling students to pursue topics of personal interest) and for fostering students’ sense of ownership and responsibility in relation to their own learning.
Review Resources

Websites:

 

 

 

http://www.aasa.org/reform/
Approach/direct.htm

http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/
issues/students/learning/
lr200.htm

http://ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/
content/cntareas/science/
sc500.htm

Books:
  • Ormrod, Jeanne E. (2000). Educational Psychology: Developing Learners,
    3rd Ed.
  • Barron's: How to Prepare for the NYSTCE - L.A.S.T/A.T.S-W, 2000
SUBAREA Il—INSTRUCTIONAL PLANNING AND ASSESSMENT
Test Objective 06 Understand curriculum development and apply knowledge of factors and processes in curricular decision making.

For example:

  • applying procedures used in curricular decision making (e.g., evaluating the current curriculum, defining scope and sequence).
  • analyzing issues in a curricular development process (e.g., detecting gaps in the curriculum, assessing potential impact of the curriculum on particular students).
  • applying strategies for modifying curriculum based on learner characteristics.
  • applying strategies for developing interdisciplinary curricula (e.g., incorporating cross-disciplinary themes).
Review Resources

Websites:

 

http://ericae.net/

http://classroom.com/

Books:
  • Ormrod, Jeanne E. (2000). Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, 3rd Ed. pp. 218-469
  • Powell, Sara (1999). Standards in the Classroom. TCM.
  • Powell, Sara (1999). Block Scheduling. TCM.
  • Karisson, Mary R. (199_). Constructivism.
Test Objective 07 Understand instructional planning and apply knowledge of planning processes to design effective instruction.

For example:

  • applying procedures used in instructional planning (e.g., defining lesson or unit objectives, developing lesson plans).
  • recognizing key factors to consider in planning instruction (e.g., students’ characteristics and prior experiences, available time and other resources, appropriate sequencing of lessons within units, instructional goals).
  • analyzing a given lesson or unit plan in terms of organization, completeness, feasibility, etc.
  • applying strategies for collaborating with others to plan and implement instruction.
Review Resources

Websites:

http://classroom.com/
Books:
  • Ormrod, Jeanne E. (2000). Educational Psychology: Developing Learners,
    3rd Ed. pp. 518-565.
  • Barron's: How to Prepare for the NYSTCE - L.A.S.T/A.T.S-W, 2000
Test Objective 08 Understand how to use formal and informal assessment to learn about students, plan instruction, monitor student understanding, and make instructional adjustments.

For example:

  • evaluating the uses and limitations of informal and formal assessment techniques (e.g., portfolio, teacher-designed classroom test, performance assessment, peer assessment, student self-assessment, teacher observation, standardized achievement test) for meeting various instructional needs.
  • recognizing strategies for planning or adjusting lessons and activities based on assessment results.
  • using assessment concepts (e.g., validity, reliability, bias) to determine the appropriateness of a formal or informal assessment instrument in a given situation.
  • evaluating a teacher’s use of information derived from observation of students.
Review Resources

Websites:

http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/
rpl_esys/collab.htm
Books:
  • Ormrod, Jeanne E. (2000). Educational Psychology: Developing Learners, 3rd Ed. pp. 633-683
  • Ryan, Concetta D. (2000). Authentic Assessment. TCM.
  • Seely, Amy E. Portfolio Assessment. TCM.
  • Abbott, Susan (1999). Standardized Testing. TCM.
SUBAREA Ill—INSTRUCTIONAL DELIVERY
Test Objective 09 Understand principles and procedures for organizing and implementing lessons, and use this knowledge to help learners construct meaning and achieve intended outcomes.

For example:

  • evaluating strengths and weaknesses of various strategies for organizing and implementing a given lesson (e.g., in relation to introducing and closing a lesson, using inductive and deductive instruction, using learning contracts, using students’ prior knowledge and experiences).
  • applying methods for adjusting lessons in response to student feedback (e.g., responding to student comments regarding relevant personal experiences, changing the pace of instruction as appropriate in given contexts).
  • analyzing advantages and disadvantages of having students acquire information and concepts through a variety of modes and formats.
  • evaluating various instructional resources (e.g., textbook, guest speaker, film) in relation to given learners (including those with special needs) or goals.
Review Resources

Websites:

 

http://ericir.syr.edu/Virtual/Lessons/

http://www.education-world.com/

Books:
  • Ormrod, Jeanne E. (2000). Educational Psychology: Developing Learners,
    3rd Ed. pp. 566-595.
  • Barron's: How to Prepare for the NYSTCE - L.A.S.T/A.T.S-W, 2000
Test Objective 10

Understand multiple approaches to instruction, and use this knowledge to facilitate learning in various situations.

For example:

  • analyzing the uses, benefits, or limitations of a specific instructional approach (e.g., direct instruction, cooperative learning, interdisciplinary instruction, independent study, lectures, hands-on activities, peer tutoring, technology-based approach) in relation to given purposes or learners (including those with special needs).
  • recognizing appropriate strategies for varying the role of the teacher (e.g., working with students as instructor, coach, observer; working with other adults in the classroom) in relation to the situation and the instructional approach used.
  • applying procedures for promoting positive and productive small-group interactions (e.g., establishing rules for working with other students in cooperative learning situations).
  • comparing instructional approaches in terms of teacher and student responsibilities, expected student outcomes, usefulness for achieving instructional purposes, etc.
Review Resources

Websites:

 

http://www.aasa.org/reform/
Approach/direct.htm

http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/
issues/students/learning/
lr200.htm

Books:
  • Ormrod, Jeanne E. (2000). Educational Psychology: Developing Learners,
    3rd Ed. pp. 596-631.
  • Barron's: How to Prepare for the NYSTCE - L.A.S.T/A.T.S-W, 2000
Test Objective 11 Understand how motivational principles and practices can be used to promote student achievement and active engagement in learning.

For example:

  • applying procedures for enhancing student interest and helping students find their own motivation (e.g., relating concepts presented in the classroom to students’ everyday experiences, encouraging student-initiated activities, highlighting connections between academic learning and the workplace)
  • analyzing the effects of using various motivational strategies (e.g., intrinsic and extrinsic) in given situations.
  • recognizing factors (e.g., expectations, value systems, methods of providing specific feedback) and situations that tend to promote or diminish student motivation.
Review Resources

Books:

  • Ormrod, Jeanne E. (2000). Educational Psychology: Developing Learners,
    3rd Ed. pp. 470-515.
  • Karisson, Mary R. (1999). Motivating At-Risk Students. TCM.
  • Barron's: How to Prepare for the NYSTCE - L.A.S.T/A.T.S-W, 2000
Test Objective 12

Understand how to use a variety of communication modes to promote student learning and to foster a climate of trust and support in the classroom.

For example:

  • applying strategies for adjusting communication to enhance student understanding (e.g., by providing examples, simplifying a complex problem, using verbal and nonverbal modes of communication, using audiovisual and technological tools of communication).
  • recognizing effective questioning methods for specific purposes (e.g., encouraging risk taking and problem solving, maintaining student engagement, facilitating factual recall).
  • analyzing how cultural and gender differences can affect communication in the classroom (e.g., eye contact, use of colloquialisms, interpretation of body language) and recognizing effective methods for enhancing communication.
  • analyzing teacher-student interactions with regard to communication issues (e.g., those related to communicating expectations, providing feedback, building student self-esteem, modeling appropriate communication techniques for specific situations).
Review Resources

Websites:

 

http://users.aol.com/churchward/hs/
techniques.html

http://www.disciplinehelp.com/

Books:
  • Ormrod, Jeanne E. (2000). Educational Psychology: Developing Learners,
    3rd Ed. pp. 596-631.
  • Grisham, D. & Molineli, P. (1999). Cooperative Learning. TCM.
  • Jasmine, Julia (1999). Teaching With Multiple Intelligences. TCM.
  • Wette, Leah (1999). Challenging Gifted Children. TCM.
  • Barron's: How to Prepare for the NYSTCE - L.A.S.T/A.T.S-W, 2000
Test Objective 13 Understand how to structure and manage a classroom to create a climate that fosters a safe and productive learning environment.

For example:

  • analyzing relationships between classroom management strategies (e.g., in relation to discipline, student decision making, establishing and maintaining standards of behavior) and student learning, attitudes, and behaviors.
  • recognizing issues related to the creation of a classroom climate (e.g., with regard to shared values, shared experiences, patterns of communication).
  • evaluating various methods for managing transitions (e.g., between lessons, when students enter and leave the classroom) and handling routine classroom tasks and unanticipated situations.
  • analyzing the effects of different spatial arrangements on the learning environment.

Review Resources

Websites:

 

 

http://www.geocities.com/Athens/
styx/7315/subjects/behavior.html

http://www.disciplinehelp.com/

http://criticalthinking.org/

Books:
  • Ormrod, Jeanne E. (2000). Educational Psychology: Developing Learners,
    3rd Ed. pp. 596-631.
  • Jasmine, Julia (1999). Conflict Resolution. TCM
  • Garfield, G. M. & McDonough, S. (1999). Creating a Technologically Literate
    Classroom. TCM.
  • Barron's: How to Prepare for the NYSTCE - L.A.S.T/A.T.S-W, 2000
SUBAREA IV—THE PROFESSIONAL ENVIRONMENT
Test Objective 14 Understand how to reflect productively on one’s own practice and take advantage of various resources and opportunities for enhancing professional development and effectiveness.

For example:

  • applying strategies for assessing one’s own teaching strengths and weaknesses.
  • using different types of resources and opportunities (e.g., journals, in-service training programs, continuing education, higher education, professional organizations, other educators) to enhance one’s teaching effectiveness.
  • applying strategies for working effectively with members of the immediate school community (e.g., colleague, mentor, supervisor, special needs professional, principal, building staff) to increase one’s knowledge or skills in a given situation.
  • analyzing ways of evaluating and responding to feedback (e.g., from supervisors, students, parents, colleagues).
Review Resources

Books:

  • Hurst, B. & Redding, G. (1999). Professionalism in Teaching. TCM.
  • Kellough, Richard D. (1999). Surviving Your First Year of Teaching. TCM.
  • Barron's: How to Prepare for the NYSTCE - L.A.S.T/A.T.S-W, 2000
Test Objective 15 Understand how to foster effective home-school relationships and school-community interactions that support student learning.

For example:

  • applying strategies for initiating and maintaining effective communication between the teacher and parents or other caregivers, and recognizing factors that may facilitate or impede communication in given situations (including parent-teacher conferences).
  • applying a variety of strategies for working with parents, caregivers, and others to help students from diverse backgrounds reinforce in-school learning outside the school environment.
  • applying strategies for using community resources to enrich learning experiences.
  • recognizing various ways in which school personnel, local citizens, and community institutions (e.g., businesses, cultural institutions, colleges and universities, social agencies) can work together to promote a sense of neighborhood and community
Review Resources

Websites:

 

http://www.ed.gov/pubs/parents/
hyc.html

http://www.edc.org/urban/

Books:
  • Aronson, Melissa M. (1999). Building Communication Partnerships With Schools.
    TCM.
  • Sirotnik, Kenneth (1999). School-University Partnership in Action. TCM.
  • Barron's: How to Prepare for the NYSTCE - L.A.S.T/A.T.S-W, 2000
Test Objective 16 Understand reciprocal rights and responsibilities in situations involving interactions between teachers and students, parents, community members, colleagues, school administrators, and other school personnel.

For example:

  • applying knowledge of laws related to students’ rights in various situations (e.g., in relation to due process, discrimination, harassment, confidentiality, discipline, privacy).
  • applying knowledge of a teacher’s rights and responsibilities in various situations (e.g., in relation to students with disabilities or who may be abused, speaking out publicly against a school policy).
  • applying knowledge of parents’ rights and responsibilities in various situations (e.g., in relation to student records, school attendance).
  • analyzing the appropriateness of a teacher’s response to a parent, a community member, or another educator in various situations (e.g., an individual who challenges the use of specific instructional materials or assessment methods).

Review Resources

Websites:

http://www.ncpie.org/
Books:
  • OECD, Integrating Students With Special Needs Into Mainstream Schools.
  • Perkins, Pamela (1999). Family Literacy: Parents as Partners. TCM.
  • Barron's: How to Prepare for the NYSTCE - L.A.S.T/A.T.S-W, 2000.
Test Objective 17 Understand the structure and organization of the New York State educational system and the role of education in the broader society.

For example:

  • analyzing differences between school-based and centralized models of decision making.
  • applying knowledge of the roles and responsibilities of different components of the education system in New York (e.g., local school boards, Board of Regents, district superintendents, superintendents of schools, school principals, Boards of Cooperative Educational Services [BOCES], higher education, unions, professional organizations).
  • applying procedures for working collaboratively and cooperatively within the system to accomplish a variety of educational goals.
  • analyzing relationships between education and society (e.g., schools reflecting and affecting social values, historical dimensions of the school-society.

Review Resources

Websites:

 

 

http://www.ed.gov/databases/
ERIC_Digests/ed315431.html

http://www.house.gov/
ed_workforce/

http://www.ed.gov/pubs/Reform/
index.html

Books:
  • Leonard, Christine J. (1999). Charter Schools. TCM
  • Barron's: How to Prepare for the NYSTCE - L.A.S.T/A.T.S-W, 2000


 
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Room 3/226

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P | (212) 650-7801
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